power lithium ion battery

Application of lithium battery power lithium ion battery

We all know that battery is used to store electricity, so it can be said that all lithium battery are energy storage batteries. But according to different application areas, lithium battery can be divided into power lithium ion battery and energy storage lithium battery.
We all know that battery are used to store electrical energy, so it can be said that all lithium batteries are energy storage batteries. According to different application fields, we look at two application scenarios of lithium ion battery: power lithium ion battery and energy storage lithium battery.

From the point of view of application, power lithium ion battery are mostly made use of in the fields of electric automobiles, electrical bikes and also other electric tools, while  energy storage lithium battery are primarily used in the fields of peak load regulation and frequency regulation power auxiliary services, renewable energy grid connection and Microgrid.

New energy vehicles

In fact, power lithium ion battery is also a kind of energy storage lithium battery, which is mainly used in electric vehicles. Due to the limitation of vehicle volume and weight and the requirements of starting acceleration, power lithium ion battery has higher performance requirements than ordinary energy storage lithium battery, such as high energy density, fast charging speed and large discharge current.

In this article, we are focus on the power lithium ion battery, and in the end, we will have an analysis of the differences between power lithium ion battery and energy storage lithium battery.

  1. Characteristics of power lithium ion battery
  2. Lithium ion battery Materials and advantages
  3. lithium ion battery Shape classification
  4. Lithium ion battery application
  5. power lithium ion battery VS Energy storage lithium battery

Chapter 1: Characteristics of power lithium ion battery

Firstly, the reason why is the lithium battery is that the advantages of itself. Compared with lead-acid, Ni MH and Ni Cd battery, it has high working voltage, high energy density, small volume, light weight, long cycle life, low self-discharge rate, no memory effect and no pollution.

CATL car battery cell
CATL car battery cell

Lithium battery

Because of listed characteristics, the lithium power battery has its unique advantages:

  • High energy and high rate of work

The working voltage of single battery can reach 3.7V, which is three times of that of Ni Cd battery, Ni MH battery and nearly two times of that of lead-acid battery. This is also an important reason for the high specific energy of lithium power battery.

  • Charge and discharge rate

The speed of charging and discharging lithium power battery is very fast, which can provide sufficient power for the equipment in a short time.

  • Long cycle life

The number of cycles can reach 1000 times. If the capacity is maintained at 80%, the number of charge and discharge cycles can reach more than 800, and the service life can reach 3-5 years, which is about 2-3 times that of lead-acid batteries. With technological innovation and the improvement of the quantitative production and production process of lithium batteries, the life of lithium batteries will become longer and longer, and the cost-effectiveness of lithium batteries will become higher and higher.

(4) Working temperature

Lithium power battery has a wide allowable working temperature range and good low-temperature performance. It can work between – 20 ℃ and + 55 ℃, and is especially suitable for low-temperature use. At low temperature, the performance of lead-acid battery and Ni MH battery will be greatly reduced due to poor electrolyte fluidity.

Chapter 2: Lithium ion Battery Materials and advantages

For lithium power battery, here are mainly two materials: iron phosphate and ternary materials.

The voltage of single lithium iron phosphate battery is 3.2V

  • Lithium iron phosphate battery

Cost: The cost of raw materials is lower than ternary lithium battery, and because lithium iron phosphate battery does not contain any heavy metals and rare metals, it is easy to obtain and does not pollute the environment.

Circularity: lithium iron phosphate battery has better circularity and longer cycle life.

Safety: LFP battery is considered as “safe” battery, but such a statement is not accurate. Because all lithium batteries have similar thermal runaway process, while the temperature that thermal runaway can reach is different. It’s just that we should admit among all lithium batteries, lithium iron phosphate battery has relatively good tolerance to some limited conditions such as overcharge and high temperature.

The voltage of single ternary lithium battery is 3.7V

  • Ternary lithium battery

High energy density: Compared with lithium iron phosphate battery, ternary lithium battery has higher energy density, so that it also has smaller volume and lighter weight.

High charge rate: The working voltage of single ternary lithium battery is 3.7V, and it has higher energy density that can also influence its charge rate.

Low temperature resistance: Compared with lithium iron phosphate battery, upon low temperature, ternary lithium battery has a good low temperature resistance.

Chapter 3: Lithium ion Battery Shape classification

Because of the size, space or other reasons of the application, lithium power battery need to be different shapes to adapt. Generally, the lithium power battery has three shapes: columnar, square and soft package.

  • Columnar

The advantages of cylindrical cells are mature production technology, high production efficiency, low pack cost, high yield of battery, good consistence, easy to combine in various forms and has high heat dissipation rate.

However, it has limitations that after the battery pack is formed, the energy density of system will drop more and its weight will be larger.

  • Square

Square lithium power battery is usually packaged with stainless steel, plastic or aluminum materials, which is widely used in the electric vehicles area. The advantage of large square cell lies in less connection points and higher power. Fewer connection points also mean lower risk of battery failure.

Besides, the characteristics including high charge and discharge rate, long cycle life, good safety performance and smaller decrease of energy density making it be a popular choice.

  • Soft package

Soft package cell can be fabricated into various shapes, which is suitable for a variety of assembly systems. It has the advantages of light weight, small space occupation and small energy density drop after forming the battery pack.

But the biggest disadvantage is its poor consistence. When soft package is applied in the module, the auxiliary pressure is required to suppress the volume change to obtain better life performance, and the auxiliary pressure needs to be all the same throughout the cell. If the pressure is not consistent, the lithium ion movement in the cell will be limited, resulting in the increase of cell impedance, shortening of cell life, and even formation of lithium dendrite, which will lead to safety failure.

What’s more, soft package cell is packaged with polymer, which is relatively easy to be damaged in the process of cell assembly, so be careful during operation.

Chapter 4: Lithium Ion Battery Application

Nowadays, lithium power batteries have been used in many areas, electric vehicles, electric two wheeler / tricycles, ships, golf carts, forklifts, cleaning vehicles, etc.

Golf cart

Chapter 5: Power lithium ion battery VS Energy storage lithium battery

According to various application scenarios, in addition to power lithium ion battery, there is one more kind of energy storage lithium battery. Compared with power lithium ion battery,  energy storage lithium battery has greater demands for life span. The life of brand-new energy lorries is typically 5-8 years, while the life of energy storage projects is usually expected to be greater than 10 years. The cycle life of power lithium ion battery is 1000-2000 times, while the cycle life of energy storage lithium battery. is typically needed to be more than 3500 times.

Besides, here are some other differences between power lithium ion battery and energy storage lithium battery:

 

  • Application industry

The power lithium ion battery is used for driving power supply of electric vehicles, electric bicycles, electric motorcycles, electric equipment and tools; it is used for power transmission and transformation power station to provide switching current for power units; the power lithium ion battery is used for power supply of electric vehicles, electric bicycles, electric motorcycles, electric equipment and tools.

Energy storage lithium battery pack is mainly used in hydropower, firepower, wind power and solar power stations, peak shaving and frequency modulation power auxiliary services, digital products, power products, medical and security, and UPS power supply.

  • C-rate

As a mobile power supply, power lithium ion battery has high requirements for volume (and mass) energy density under the premise of safety, so as to achieve more lasting endurance. At the same time, users also hope that electric vehicles can be charged safely and quickly. Therefore, power lithium batteries have high requirements for energy density and power density. Just because of safety considerations, energy batteries with charge discharge capacity of about 1C are generally used.

Most energy storage devices do not need to be moved, so there is no direct requirement for energy density, which is generally 0.2C and 0.5C.

The preparation of energy storage battery emphasizes the capacity, especially the operation stability and cycle life. More attention should be paid to the consistency of battery modules. In terms of battery materials, attention should be paid to the expansion rate and energy density, and the performance uniformity of electrode materials, so as to pursue the long life and low cost of the whole energy storage equipment.

  • Cycle life

Compared with power lithium ion battery, energy storage lithium battery has higher requirements for cycle life. The life of new energy vehicles is generally 5-8 years, while the life of energy storage projects is generally expected to be more than 10 years. The cycle life of power lithium ion battery is 1000-2000 times, while the cycle life of energy storage lithium battery is generally required to be more than 3500 times. We hope to develop new operation and maintenance regeneration technology to achieve ultra long energy storage life.

  • Battery capacity

In the case of new battery, and use a discharge meter to test the battery capacity, we will see the capacity of general power lithium batteries is about 1000-1500mAh.

Besides, because energy storage lithium battery pack is used for energy storage lithium battery, the capacity will be higher, it always with the capacity of more than 2000 mAh, some can reach 3400 mAh.

  • Battery management system location

In the application of energy storage,energy storage lithium battery just communicates with energy storage converter at high voltage, the converter takes power from the Air Conditioner power grid to charge the battery pack; or the battery pack supplies power to the converter,  and the electric energy is converted into AC through the converter and sent to the AC power grid;

In the application of power lithium ion battery, BMS of electric vehicle has energy exchange relationship with motor and charger in high voltage; in communication, it has information interaction with charger in charging process, and in all application processes, it has the most detailed information interaction with vehicle controller.

  • Cell type

In the application of energy storage lithium battery, for the sake of safety and economy, when choosing lithium battery pack, lithium iron phosphate battery is often used. Some energy storage power stations also use lead-acid battery and lead-carbon battery;

At present, the mainstream battery types of power lithium ion battery electric vehicles are lithium iron phosphate battery and lithium ternary battery.

  • Characteristic

power lithium ion battery refers to the battery that provides power for transportation vehicles, generally compared with the small battery that provides energy for portable electronic devices;

Ordinary energy storage lithium battery is a kind of primary battery with lithium metal or lithium alloy as anode material and non-aqueous electrolyte solution. It is different from rechargeable battery, lithium-ion battery and lithium-ion polymer battery.

  • Design

power lithium ion battery is more focused on charging and discharging power, which requires fast charging rate, high output power and vibration resistance, especially high safety and high energy density to achieve long-term endurance, and light weight and volume;

The preparation of energy storage lithium battery emphasizes the battery capacity, especially the operation stability and service life. More attention should be paid to the consistency of battery modules. In terms of battery materials, attention should be paid to the expansion rate and energy density, and the performance uniformity of electrode materials, so as to pursue the long life and low cost of the whole energy storage equipment.

Some people figuratively compare the power lithium ion battery to the generator, and the energy storage lithium battery is equivalent to the converter. Although they two belong to the same field of electrochemical application, and their technical requirements are relatively high, their application areas are different, and their performance and design are different.

If you still have any questions, just contact us freely at any time.

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